Zinc. Bracteate. Diameter 42.8mm. THE SALVATION ARMY · SOCIAL WING · above and below 4D, F S (food and shelter) at sides. The reverse bears the stamp of the metal manufacturers, ZINC VIEILLE MONTAGNE * LIEGE * *** 14 A. Late 19th century. Very slight flan clip, VF
The stamp visible on the reverse would be on the rolled sheet metal supplied to the makers of the tokens, so only some of the tokens will display this. It confirms the dating of the tokens to the 1880-90s.
Vielle Montagne Mine = Altenberg Mine, Kelmis, Liege, Belgium. The zinc ore occurs as the so-called “Galmei” or “Calamine” (an intergrowth of Smithsonite, Hemimorphite, and Willemite). Only traces of sulfides occurred along the walls of the open pit. Between 1837 and 1884 some 1,414,328 tonnes of calamine was produced.
The open cut mine Altenberg (Kelmisberg) mountain was located north of the road leading from Aachen to Liège. The mine was abandoned in 1884. Today the open cut is refilled. The mine was located in "Neutral-Moresnet", in Kelmis, (La Calamine), which was an independent state for a little over a century until, in 1920, there came an end to its independence and it became a part of Belgium.
The Salvation Army Social Wing—value in centre F - S (Food and Shelter) at sides. Values seen: 1/2d, Id, 2d, 3d, 4d and 6d. These tokens were manufactured at the Salvation Army Spa Road Centre, London, and distributed to all the (then) Men's Social Work Centres in the British Isles. They date from the early 1890s.
The Salvation Army Social Work - with the value in the centre. Values recorded are 1/2d, 2d and 5d. The Social Wing had become known as the Men's Social Work by c. 1895.
The Salvation Army Social Centre - value in centre F - S (Food and Shelter) at sides. Values seen - 2d and 6d.
In Salvation Army Tokens, Lieut-Colonel Paul Seiler, (Retd) (USA) describes another type: The Salvation Army Elevator with the denomination in the centre. Records indicate values of 1-1/2d, 2d and 3d. However, freehand illustrations indicate two types, both with Salvation Army reduced to initials: S.A. Social Wing Elevator (2d), and S.A. Social Work Elevator (3d).
Jeffrey Gardiner, who spent 30 years studying the tokens of Northumberland and Durham believes that the Social Wing tokens were in use up to c. 1960. This is entirely possible, considering that they appear to turn up much more frequently than any of the others. Bearing in mind that, as already stated, Social Wings became known as the Men's Social Work by about 1895, this would explain the second issue (The Salvation Army Social Work) for general distribution. However, it does not by any means follow that all Salvation Army centres changed the tokens with the change of name.
The stamp that we record on the 4d clearly shows that the first issue of tokens was made in the last quarter of the 19th century.
The Elevator token is inscribed NEAL. Probably for Neal & Son of East Finchley, who were operational 1866-1948.
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